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Text Size Only fools pay for their champagne at Oxford.As a women’s-studies graduate student at the British university, I could always count on my professors stocking a bottle or two of bubbly in their offices, happily pouring me a glass whenever I walked in.

Students of other graduate programs at Oxford had reserved seats in the library, educational field trips, or allotted funding for research materials, but the 15 women of Oxford’s women’s-studies program during the 2013–14 academic year made do with drinking in medieval-era buildings we would’ve been banned from a century ago Writing a Statement of Purpose Center for Academic Writing.Students of other graduate programs at Oxford had reserved seats in the library, educational field trips, or allotted funding for research materials, but the 15 women of Oxford’s women’s-studies program during the 2013–14 academic year made do with drinking in medieval-era buildings we would’ve been banned from a century ago.

“I'd felt like I'd been let into this cultural club because so much of English culture, things like Brideshead Revisited and that sort of thing, is based around Oxford,” 27-year-old Isobel Laing, a classmate from Cheltenham, told me.candidate at Cambridge, shared similar sentiments about her university: “I was just really enchanted from the outside looking in—it was so grand A thesis submitted to the Department of Cultural Studies. In conformity with the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts. Queen‟s University. Kingston   2. Figure 2: Part 2 of Aboriginal Council Visioning Map. (2011). This project is representative of a particular time and space at Queen's. University. After years of  .

candidate at Cambridge, shared similar sentiments about her university: “I was just really enchanted from the outside looking in—it was so grand.

” If you had just joined a club that took centuries to grant you membership, would you dare ask for more? We were grateful that a women’s-studies master’s program existed at Oxford at all, especially after learning our professors, who taught in other disciplines as well, weren’t getting paid for the additional work they did for women’s-studies students.Sure, my classmates and I were confidently theorizing in seminars about women’s unpaid labor, but addressing these discrepancies in real life proved to foreshadow future disappointments in the devaluation of women beyond the stone enclaves of Oxford myol.info/paper/recreation-management.php.Sure, my classmates and I were confidently theorizing in seminars about women’s unpaid labor, but addressing these discrepancies in real life proved to foreshadow future disappointments in the devaluation of women beyond the stone enclaves of Oxford.A classmate recently shared a link to Feminist Formations, a peer-reviewed journal about feminist scholarship, published by Johns Hopkins University Press myol.info/paper/recreation-management.php.A classmate recently shared a link to Feminist Formations, a peer-reviewed journal about feminist scholarship, published by Johns Hopkins University Press.I immediately delved into the back archives of the journal, where I discovered, to my dismay, that women’s- and gender-studies programs began as volunteer commitments by scholars and activists in universities both in the U.

“It has been a long struggle to get support from universities for them,” Lila Abu-Lughod, a professor of anthropology and women's and gender studies at Columbia University, confirmed.At Columbia, with a grant from the Mellon Foundation, professors took it upon themselves to found the Institute for Research on Women, Gender, and Sexuality in 1987, but salaried positions in the program—a “faculty line” in academic jargon—weren’t established until 1998.The budget only covered basic operations, and faculty members had difficulty getting permission from their departments to commit time to teaching and developing the program.

The first women’s-studies program in the United Kingdom wasn’t established until 1980 at the University of Kent in Canterbury, with a Master of Arts degree offered in gender studies.The gender-studies degree programs in Britain are affiliated with interdisciplinary research centers, which means that their work isn’t guaranteed to be recognized, supported, or funded as are dedicated faculties in English, philosophy, or economics.In other words, they will always be secondary to the traditional departments because there isn’t a gender-studies department—just a gender-studies research center." To this day, there are no salaried posts in women’s studies at Oxford, and it would cost £2 million to endow such a post at the school, according to Ros Ballaster, the co-founder of women’s studies at Oxford.

“Women’s Studies: Oxford’s cheapest faculty,” was the slogan printed on badges worn by the volunteer-based Oxford’s Women’s Studies Committee in 1993.The committee, originally formed to organize lectures funded by small royalties received by publications based on the lectures, still exists as the steering committee for the master’s program; it voluntarily meets several times every year for additional tasks and projects, such as deciding whom to admit to the next cohort of master’s-degree students and responding to student feedback.“When I went to the committee meeting, there were probably three people there,” Laing, who served as my cohort’s student representative, recalled.“It didn’t seem like something people were caring too much about … Maybe because they volunteered for it?” Oxford wouldn’t dare cut its own women’s-studies program—“It would be an obvious PR disaster as a leading university,” Helen Swift, a professor of medieval French who leads the program, told me.But women’s studies in Britain is at risk of being defunded.

On the other side of town in Oxford, the program in women’s studies was recently terminated at Ruskin College, an alternative college for adults who have no traditional educational qualifications.(The college is famous for educating women when other schools banned them.) “We haven't got much money,” the college’s principal, Chris Wilkes, said.After conducting a curriculum review, the school decided to cut other programs, too, including English studies and history.“ Women’s studies wasn't covering its costs,” Wilkes added.

The loss of the program was a blow to a progressive school known for its history of radical feminist activism, such as hosting the first Women’s Liberation Conference in 1970.But it’s not just Ruskin: Traditional universities like the University of Kent and the University of Edinburgh have also cut institutional support for gender studies.And in the United States in 2014, the University of South Carolina Upstate was forced to close its gender-studies center.I called Paige West, a professor of anthropology at Barnard College and Columbia University who also works in interdisciplinary programs, to explain the shift away from these fields.All interdisciplinary programs—like ethnic studies, women’s studies, and urban studies—were born out of voluntary commitments from existing faculty members, she noted.

That means that if these programs are financially draining to a given institution—especially because, unlike their counterparts in scientific departments, their costs aren’t covered by contracts and grants—they run the risk of termination.That’s particularly true if the discipline is politically charged and if there aren’t many viable employment options outside of higher education.Abu-Lughod pointed out that “the salaries of economics professors are at least three times that of humanities professors and .they argue for raises on the basis of their ‘market’ value—since they could be in business or politics instead of education .

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” Meanwhile, back at Oxford, it’s left to the professors who were initially hired for other departments to eke out time and resources for their women’s-studies instruction.

I reached out to the university to learn more about its approach to women's studies, and I was directed to Ballaster, the co-founder of that department, and Swift—both of whom advised me while I was a student there.Because Swift’s salary at the university comes out of funding for the Medieval and Modern Languages faculty, that money has to be stretched to support her work for the women’s-studies program Within the field of journalism studies, therefore, my research agenda holds three aims: 1) to examine the role of journalists within an ideological, interpretive community – particularly in terms of expressing narratives of race and geography; 2) to explore issues of power within journalistic storytelling via mythical news  .Because Swift’s salary at the university comes out of funding for the Medieval and Modern Languages faculty, that money has to be stretched to support her work for the women’s-studies program.

The university allocates Swift eight hours a week to complete work for women’s studies, so every week, the faculty—not Swift—receives eight hours’ worth of her salary to let her work on something else.This system is known in British higher education as a “buyout,” not to be confused with the American definition of the term .

This system is known in British higher education as a “buyout,” not to be confused with the American definition of the term.

But Swift admits that the buyout is just an institutional gesture of support.“Now, strangely enough, it takes me a little bit longer than the equivalent of writing and delivering eight hours of lectures,“ she noted.“But it's never intended to actually cover the amount of time that it takes.Or at least, that's how I've always construed them … Because they don't.That’s just the reality of academic life.

One professor at Oxford called the work of teaching women’s studies a “labor of love”—a sentiment echoed by Swift.“ It’s the sense of doing good service,” she said.“It's not something that brings one extra time, but in that respect, it’s a bit like contributing to outreach.It seems… part of one's mission, in a way.

As passionate as our professors were, my cohort at Oxford didn’t feel all that inspired in seminars.Some students, such as Julienne Orcullo, a 24-year-old from Sydney, did say she appreciated Oxford’s lax, hands-off approach to women’s studies.

But most of my other peers expressed disappointment.

“I think when you get into a university which has such a prestigious reputation internationally, as Oxford does, you expect a certain level of support and engagement,” Laing reflected.” Once, a professor confessed she hadn’t done the assigned reading herself.I seethed in class, feeling self-righteous because I did all the reading and even highlighted a few passages, too.At the time, I didn’t realize she was essentially volunteering her nonexistent free time to teach us and that my anger toward her lacking preparation for class was misplaced.

I should have been furious with my school for its blatant labor exploitation and for failing to support certain forms of academic pursuit.In response to a public-records request, the University of Oxford shared documents revealing how the women’s-studies master’s-degree program was funded between the 2011 and 2016 academic years.The funding varied wildly from year to year—in the 2011-12 school year, the program received a grand total of £111,790.The following school year, it received just £44,965.01—less than half of the previous year’s funding.

By the 2015 to 2016 school year, the funding was up to £89,304.The biggest costs involved infrastructure (libraries and IT support, for example), while administrative expenses also ate a large chunk.But spending on teaching was comparably low: At its peak, it was £8,842.95 (compared to £43,410 for infrastructure and £17,261.

23 for administration), and at its base, it was £5,725 (compared to £15,100 and £7,354).(The University of Oxford declined a public-records request for funding statistics from other interdisciplinary master’s-degree programs, citing excessive costs.) Spending, according to the document, varied largely according to the number of students in the course.That means that, in my year of 15 students, for all the weekly lectures and seminars we attended—and all the papers we wrote—teaching each of us only cost the university about £456 per student over the course of 10 months.These wages are comparative to those of adjunct professors in the United States— akin to “freelance” instructors with low pay and no job security.

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adjunct professors is $2,700 or so—or about $270 for grading, administrating, and teaching a student over the course of a term, assuming the adjunct is teaching a 10-person seminar.And while the burden of being a full-time instructor in women’s studies comes with benefits— publicly funded health care and full-time salaries, for example—teaching women’s-studies students ultimately come with a significant loss of time and, often, money.“Whether our programs are well funded or not, for most of us, it is an intellectual and political passion,” Abu-Lughod said Alina Herescu, The relationship between higher order thinking skills (HOTS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) in content and language integrated learning (CLIL): a mixed-methods case study of learners' oral production in English at two schools in Romania, Michael Evans, 2016-2017. Kevin Kester  .

“Whether our programs are well funded or not, for most of us, it is an intellectual and political passion,” Abu-Lughod said.

“That involves seeking funding, seeking respect, helping each other, institutionalizing, et cetera.” And my program at Oxford, and Abu-Lughod’s Institute for Research on Women, Gender, and Sexuality at Columbia, are the luckier of the bunch: In 2007, a census of U Write me a college thesis proposal women's studies for me single spaced British Oxford Writing from scratch.” And my program at Oxford, and Abu-Lughod’s Institute for Research on Women, Gender, and Sexuality at Columbia, are the luckier of the bunch: In 2007, a census of U.women’s-studies programs conducted by The National Women’s Studies Association determined that 5 percent of women’s-studies programs in the country reported that they received no funding at all.* * * Long before my program’s struggle for legitimacy—before females were even allowed to study at Oxford—women were essential to the endowment and founding of some of the university’s most prestigious colleges.

In 1610, the influential heiress Dorothy Wadham founded Wadham College, according to the will of her late husband Nicholas Wadham, using her own funds to finance the institution.“It would greatly offend my conscience to violate any jot of my husband's will,” she said.In 1974, Wadham College, along with Brasenose College, Jesus College, Hertford College, and St.Catherine's College, became one of the first formerly men-only institutions to admit women.Oxford, despite opening its women’s colleges in the 1800s, continued to deny degrees to qualified women until 1920, not giving them full collegiate status until 1959.

Elite American universities weren’t much better—Columbia, for example, didn’t admit women until 1987.A persistent argument in academia, as Ballaster told us during one of our first days in the program, is that separate programs for women’s studies are no longer relevant because gender studies is incorporated into other disciplines.The political scientist Wendy Brown even critiqued women’s studies to be a “border control” of gender that privileges the political over the intellectual.But learning in a space carved out for women’s studies—no matter how small or flimsy—not only taught me how to use gender as a “tool” to extract meaning when conducting my research, it also gave me the space to realize that living and interpreting the world as a woman is a valid experience.It made me realize that not being a cisgender, white man—especially at a school known for its imperialistic ties—didn’t automatically mean I was inferior.

" The Master’s in Women’s Studies has led me to question the assumption that interdisciplinarity is always a necessary good,” Ballaster wrote in a 2012 essay in the anthology Teaching Gender.“There is a freedom in teaching gender from within a single discipline if the questions we ask are sufficiently generous and rigorous." Virginia Woolf, who was educated at home while her two brothers were schooled at Cambridge, also had her own set of frustrations about the treatment of women in the U.At the core of her 1929 essay A Room of One’s Own was a demand for literal and physical spaces for women writers, as literary tradition was (and is) dominated by men.She, as an imaginary narrator, attempts to enter the library at Oxbridge, an imaginary college based on Oxford and Cambridge, but is stopped by a “gentleman” who tells her that “ladies are only admitted to the library if accompanied by a fellow of the college or furnished with a letter of introduction.” She later ends up at an imaginary women’s college called Fernham, where she is discouraged by the poverty of amenities—not even books—in contrast to Oxbridge.“To raise bare walls out of bare earth was the utmost they could do,” Woolf wrote.

Nearly a century after Woolf’s observations, Oxford is giving women much more than bare walls—ample amounts of wine (paid for out of professors’ pockets, of course), faculty mentors, and access to the libraries, to name a few.

“ Oxford is quite a mythic place in British culture, and I think having been there, I suddenly felt like I was part of that club,” Laing, my classmate, told me.“I felt like I'd been let into an elite group.” While other graduate students got their own libraries or at least reserved desks to sit in, we had to ask for permission from departments like that of history and English to use their resources.Sometimes, we were even denied access due to confusion about our status as interdisciplinary students.

In 2014, the rooms were still not our own.Writing a Statement of Purpose Of all the different types of text you will have to write in the academic world, the statement of purpose is one of the most difficult, not least because it is about you.We spend our time trying to eliminate ourselves from other academic writing, from research proposals or from term papers.Now you have to write a paper about yourself.Like any other academic genre, a statement of purpose has a logical structure and development, and its purpose is to simultaneously show why you are the best candidate for a given course or grant, and why this course or grant is the most suitable one for you.

But don't leave it at that: when you have finished, come to the Writing Center and discuss your statement of purpose with us.

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The resulting revised draft will be even more effective.Do Answer the Question! Before you start writing your statement of purpose, look careful at any instructions you have been given.If, for example, you have been asked to specify why you want to study at this university, make sure you answer that question, and that your paragraph starts with a sentence that will signal that you are answering it (e 26 Jul 2002 - Writing a research plan casts your gaze forward and prompts you to begin planning for when you have your own laboratory.   I strongly recommend that the candidate have colleagues pre-review the proposal and make sure the English is clear and ideas explained so that a variety of people in the general  .

If, for example, you have been asked to specify why you want to study at this university, make sure you answer that question, and that your paragraph starts with a sentence that will signal that you are answering it (e.

Do not omit to answer any of the questions you are asked, and consider carefully before providing information you were not asked for.If you have 500 words, they expect you to spend most of them answering their questions, not volunteering other information We spend our time trying to eliminate ourselves from other academic writing, from research proposals or from term papers.   If, for example, you have been asked to specify why you want to study at this university, make sure you answer that question, and that your paragraph starts with a sentence that will signal that you are  .

If you have 500 words, they expect you to spend most of them answering their questions, not volunteering other information.

Frequently, however, universities do not give any guidance as to what they want, perhaps wanting to test if you are intelligent enough to work it out for yourself We spend our time trying to eliminate ourselves from other academic writing, from research proposals or from term papers.   If, for example, you have been asked to specify why you want to study at this university, make sure you answer that question, and that your paragraph starts with a sentence that will signal that you are  .Frequently, however, universities do not give any guidance as to what they want, perhaps wanting to test if you are intelligent enough to work it out for yourself.If so, the guidelines below are designed to help you.Attracting the Reader's Attention When you write a statement of purpose, you need to remember that you are just one of many, perhaps even hundreds of applicants for your chosen study place.The person who reads your statement will have read dozens of others.If yours does not stand out in some way that shows that you are original, different and interesting - which of course you are (but at the same time not eccentric or peculiar - which you may be, but don't emphasize the fact!), it will be consigned to the heap of also-rans, the people who may get a place if there are some left over at the end.

If a statement of purpose fails to catch the reader's attention, it may be due to one or more of the following problems: It starts with flattering comments about the university they are applying for - the person who reads your statement already knows how good their institution is: they don't need you to tell them.It provides an entire life history, starting from birth, - by the time you reach the important bit, your reader will have lost interest.Unless your high school days are especially interesting, concentrate on your university career.It starts off by explaining exactly how the writer heard about this particular course - unless this information shows something important about you, leave it out.It begins by providing personal details that can be found on the r sum , such as age or place of birth.

It begins by trying to second-guess the reader's thoughts, for example: 'You are probably wondering why a specialist in.' This strategy might possibly work, but it will probably be more effective if you go ahead and answer the question.Although they do grab attention, the sort of statements that are least successful are those that use over-theatrical and silly introductions that are inappropriate for an academic environment.If you start with 'I am a really special person', or 'Ever since I was a baby, gazing happily at the world.

', you shouldn't be surprised if you get rejected.Some statements dive straight into the complex field of the specialist, immediately discussing obscure areas of theory.Remember that while you are expected to show familiarity with your subject, not all readers may be specialists in your chosen field.If they can't understand you, they may not realize how good you are.Capturing the reader's attention - examples Look at the following two efforts at starting a r sum and see which you think would be more likely to capture the reader's interest: Example A I am applying for the Central European University, based on the reputation this University has in the academic community world-wide.

I have also spoken to several alumni of your university.I am very interested in admission to the graduate program in Economics.I know that research programs in Economics are very diverse and this is the main reason why I prefer this university.Example B Recent Moldovan government figures show an alarming 40% increase in mental illness amongst young people in the last ten years.These figures are just one more factor that persuades me that my choice of a career in neuroscience was the right one, and motivates me to study further at Ph.

level in this field in order to help combat this serious problem.Sample A has several weaknesses: it is too general - one could insert the name of any university it does not mention any of the specific features of the university nor does it justify the flattering claim of a 'world-wide reputation' it simply says that the university has a good reputation and a range of courses - neither very original nor interesting for the reader it does not start by answering the question 'Why economics?' but immediately starts with the more specific question of 'Why economics at CEU Sample B, in contrast, shows several positive features: it grabs the reader's attention with an alarming piece of information it starts with a reference to the real world, thus moving from the general to the specific it shows that the writer is aware of the link between academe and the real world and has a desire to put theoretical learning into practice it very succinctly expresses the link between the applicant's past studies, proposed studies and subsequent career How to start off Ideally you need to start with an interesting fact or detail about you, your situation or your interests which makes you appear interesting and intelligent.You might also try a more general truth or saying, then show how this applies to your situation.

You may want to quote someone famous who has said something relevant, but if so, keep it short, quote correctly, and make sure that the relevance to your position is absolutely clear.

Do give enough time to creating a good initial paragraph.It is the first thing your audience will read, and first impressions are quickly formed.

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If your first sentences are dull, irrelevant, eccentric or pompous, or worse still, full of grammatical or spelling mistakes, your reader will quickly form a negative impression which will be hard to dispel.The Structure of a Statement of Purpose The word 'purpose' normally means 'what you want to do', however, it has a secondary meaning, which is the quality of knowing 'that you want to do something'.

Purpose in this sense means having a direction, and it is essential that your statement of purpose shows that you do have a direction and know both where you are going and how you can best get there The IRWG Feminist Research Seminars are small, themed residential conferences bringing together a small group of scholars to address quandaries in theoretical or empirical   Junior and senior tenure-track faculty from the University of Michigan and other institutions are eligible to apply to be seminar organizers..Purpose in this sense means having a direction, and it is essential that your statement of purpose shows that you do have a direction and know both where you are going and how you can best get there.

A good statement of purpose will usually have the following structure: Your Past How your studies at undergaduate level and at graduate level, as well as any other work or study experience, has prepared you for the course of study that you wish to take.Your Proposed Course Of Study Should be shown to be a logical follow-on from your studies/work to date and to prepare you for your future career Master Of Philosophy M Phil Department of English and nbsp.Your Proposed Course Of Study Should be shown to be a logical follow-on from your studies/work to date and to prepare you for your future career.Your Future Career Should be something for which your proposed course of study is valuable or essential, and should have some logical connection to what went before.Of course, you own career may not be as simple as this.

Perhaps you started studying biophysics, then later developed a passion for medieval poetry myol.info/research-paper/best-website-to-get-a-research-paper-cbe-writing-from-scratch-platinum-for-me.Perhaps you started studying biophysics, then later developed a passion for medieval poetry.This is not going to disqualify you, but you need to ask yourself 'why should a university choose me rather that someone who has always been interested in medieval poetry?' If you can answer this question, you have a chance of being considered.If, however, your reader gets the impression have suddenly for no good reason conceived an interest in a field you have never studied before, they may equally assume you will lose interest just as quickly.You best chance usually lies in showing that there is a meaningful progression to your career which is driven by your sense of purpose and academic or professional ambition.The above model suggests that a statement of purpose should move from your past and present studies, to your proposed studies and finally to your future career.

If you want to be innovative, you are not obliged to follow this pattern, but the elements and the connection should be there and should be clear to the reader.Before you start writing, draw yourself a clear structural plan, perhaps allowing a paragraph or so for each stage.Obviously, your past will be much clearer and more detailed than your future, but don't neglect the second and third boxes in the diagram above, or you may look like an eternal student, always hunting for something new to study.Keep to the word limit Universities often provide a word limit or a page limit to guide you.

If they say they don't want to read three pages, they mean it.Bear in mind that academics have to do an awful lot of reading, not only of statements of purpose but also of essays and theses.If you can't keep to the word limit for a statement of purpose, they may be worrying that you will write a 450 page thesis when 150 pages was the limit.Writing too much is never a way to make yourself popular.

If a limit is given, it is good to set yourself a personal maximum limit of 10-15% less than that.And don't feel you have to fill a word limit.If you have said all you want to in 700 words and the limit is 1000, great! Stop.Don't go looking for verbiage to pack in the spaces.Set yourself section word limits If you have 800 words, have in mind how many you want to spend on each section of your statement.If you use 750 words describing your studies to date, you will have nothing left for the other sections.By setting yourself rough word limits for each part, you ensure that the statement is balanced.Be selective With any piece of writing where there is a word limit, you will not have enough space to say everything about everything.

You have to gather all the necessary information, look at it and throw away the things which are less necessary.It may hurt not to be able to say that you got top grades in your school for physics (when you're applying to study sociology) but you have to be ruthless.Remember that the ability to evaluate and select what to include and what to leave out is valuable academic skill in its own right, and demonstrating that you have that skill can count powerfully in your favor.Use appropriate language Obviously you need to show you have a good command of the English language: avoid slang, use vocabulary appropriate to your field and show that you can write a sentence of more than 5 words.At the same time, don't start looking for long words to impress with.If an ordinary word will do, don't go thesaurus hunting for a bigger one, not least because you may use it wrongly.Edit thoroughly When you have written a first draft, go over it and check whether any of your phrases are wordy or clumsy.

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Try to re-express them clearly and succinctly.While it is good to use longer sentences sometimes, don't ramble.If your sentence has more than 30 words, read it over and see if it would be better to split it into two Best website to buy a women's studies thesis proposal quality A4 (British/European) British 46 pages / 12650 words 1 hour.If your sentence has more than 30 words, read it over and see if it would be better to split it into two.

Reading aloud may help you to feel if your ideas are clearly expressed.

Some sample statements of purpose The following sample thesis statements, though well written and successful, are not perfect and may contain mistakes or weaknesses 4 Mar 2018 - I read the whole zodiac book in 2 days, now comes the 4 page essay that's due on monday. life of a procrastinating college student   Writing the expository essay how to write career research paper features of essay writing year martin luther king jr heroism essay gaia theory essay wedding rituals essay?.

Some sample statements of purpose The following sample thesis statements, though well written and successful, are not perfect and may contain mistakes or weaknesses.

It is not included to show you a model that you can copy but to provide an example of how it has been done by others 4 Mar 2018 - I read the whole zodiac book in 2 days, now comes the 4 page essay that's due on monday. life of a procrastinating college student   Writing the expository essay how to write career research paper features of essay writing year martin luther king jr heroism essay gaia theory essay wedding rituals essay?.It is not included to show you a model that you can copy but to provide an example of how it has been done by others.You will need to write your own statement ion your own words.Sample #1 My interest in International Relations and my decision to continue my education in this field is the outcome of my profound interest in Asian studies.Majoring in History of India, during my final year I became especially interested in the sphere of International Relations and Foreign Policy of India, writing my thesis on Indian Foreign Policy during Nehru's Government and Indian-Chinese relations.

Two trips to India 1997 and 1998 allowed me to become better acquainted with this country, refine my knowledge of Hindi and collect unique data for my research.This unforgettable experience convinced me that I had made the right choice of study, leading me to apply for a PhD Degree so as to extend my research in this field.I have so far completed two years of the PhD program at St.My dissertation aims at disclosing those problems which still hinder the process of normalization between the two Asian countries, India and China, reflecting on how Indian scholars perceive these issues.

Thus my research covers both Regional Studies and field of International Relations as a global world system where these two countries play an important role.My presentation of a paper on Indo-Chinese Relations in 1980s at the international conference "East Asia - St.Petersburg - Europe: inter-civilization contacts and perspectives on economic cooperation" held in St.Petersburg a year ago gave me the opportunity to meet many outstanding researchers, including my referee, Marcia Ristaino, who encouraged me to continue my studies focusing specifically on International Relations and Regional Studies.For that reason I applied and was accepted to the MA Program in International Relations and European Studies at Central European University in Budapest with a scholarship from Soros foundation.

The courses I am taking here will provide me with a sound background in theoretical issues in International Relations.The reason of why I am applying for another Master's Degree is that the CEU program, despite its theoretical strength, has very few courses directly related to my major interest, Regional Studies and conflict resolution and peacekeeping.For this reason I would like to deepen my practical understanding of International Relations and relate it to a more focused concentration on conflict analysis and resolution through the program of the Carleton University.I am aware of the high reputation of your school and the excellent Master's program that you offer at the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs.I believe it will certainly help me with my research and career objectives either through work in diplomatic service or at an international organization where I will be able to apply my knowledge and skills obtained through studies at your University.

Courses such as Conflict Analysis, International Mediation and Conflict Resolution and International Organizations in International Affairs will be very helpful for my analyzing of the problems in the South Asian subcontinent and beyond it and will allow me to deeper understand the reasons for numerous interstate and intrastate conflicts that persist in the region.Moreover these courses will be of particular relevance to my career plans which are to find employment with UN or a similar institution in the field of conflict resolution and peacekeeping.The possibility to combine theoretical studies with practical skills in conflict analysis and resolution at the Carleton University will enable me to become a good specialist who will be able to contribute to the common cause of peace in the world.I am eager to become a professional orientalist, as I believe this field of study will always be important in the changing world where Asian countries such as India and China play significant roles in the international arena.MA at the Carleton University would be a precious experience both in terms of my academic and professional career.

I hope you will give me the opportunity to realize my ambition.(A CEU Student - reproduced here with kind permission) Sample #2 Having majored in literary studies (world literature) as an undergraduate, I would now like to concentrate on English and American literature.I am especially interested in nineteenth-century literature, women's literature, Anglo-Saxon poetry, and folklore and folk literature.My personal literary projects have involved some combination of these subjects.For the oral section of my comprehensive exams, I specialized in nineteenth century novels by and about women.

The relation ship between "high" and folk literature became the subject for my honors essay, which examined Toni Morrison's use of classical, biblical, African, and Afro-American folk tradition in her novel.I plan to work further on this essay, treating Morrison's other novels and perhaps preparing a paper suitable for publication.

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In my studies toward a doctoral degree, I hope to examine more closely the relationship between high and folk literature.My junior year and private studies of Anglo-Saxon language and literature have caused me to consider the question of where the divisions between folklore, folk literature, and high literature lie.Should I attend your school, I would like to resume my studies of Anglo-Saxon poetry, with special attention to its folk elements 7 Mar 2017 - Tim Squirrell is a PhD student at the University of Edinburgh, and is teaching for the first time this year. When he was asked to deliver sessions on the art of essay-writing, he decided to publish a comprehensive (and brilliant) blog on the topic, offering wisdom gleaned from turning out two or three essays a  .

Should I attend your school, I would like to resume my studies of Anglo-Saxon poetry, with special attention to its folk elements.

Writing poetry also figures prominently in my academic and professional goals.I have just begun submitting to the smaller journals with some success and am gradually building a working manuscript for a collection Best websites to buy a women's studies thesis proposal single spaced 6 hours Business US Letter Size.I have just begun submitting to the smaller journals with some success and am gradually building a working manuscript for a collection.The dominant theme of this collection relies on poems that draw from classical, biblical, and folk traditions, as well as everyday experience, in order to celebrate the process of giving and taking life, whether literal or figurative Best websites to buy a women's studies thesis proposal single spaced 6 hours Business US Letter Size.The dominant theme of this collection relies on poems that draw from classical, biblical, and folk traditions, as well as everyday experience, in order to celebrate the process of giving and taking life, whether literal or figurative.My poetry draws from and influences my academic studies.Much of what I read and study finds a place in my creative work as subject.

At the same time, I study the art of literature by taking part in the creative process, experimenting with the tools used by other authors in the past.In terms of a career, I see myself teaching literature, writing criticism, and going into editing or publishing poetry.Doctoral studies would be valuable to me in several ways.First, your teaching assistantship program would provide me with the practical teaching experience I am eager to acquire.in English and American literature would advance my other two career goals by adding to my skills, both critical and creative, in working with language.as an end in itself, as well as a professional stepping-stone; I enjoy studying literature for its own sake and would like to continue my studies on the level demanded by the Ph.

40-41) Teaching Writing (ENGL GR6913y) This course introduces students to pedagogical as well as practical issues involved in running a section of Columbia University's Undergraduate Writing Program.This course is run through the Undergraduate Writing Center, and is taken for R credit, with no letter grade unless the student chooses to write a research paper.

Teaching Tutorial (ENGL GR6910 x or y) With the permission of the faculty instructor, some departmental Teaching Fellows may teach voluntary discussion sections attached to (usually large) undergraduate lectures.The course is taken for "R" credit and may count as one of the six courses required for the M.It may also fulfill a distribution requirement.DISTRIBUTION OF CLASSES During the first year of the M.

, students are expected to complete their distribution requirements.students, this means taking courses in any of the four categories remaining from the M.

Year: medieval, early modern, 18th & 19th century, and 20th century.For example, students who take a medieval and 20th-century class to fulfill the M.distribution requirement would need to take an early modern and 18th & 19th century class by the end of the first M.

year to fulfill the distribution requirements.Each year the department draws up a list of courses that fulfill each period requirement.When a course spans two periods, it can count toward whichever period serves as the base for the student's primary written work.Graduate coursework completed elsewhere can be used to cover distribution requirements as appropriate.

students can cross-register for graduate courses at NYU, CUNY, Fordham, Rutgers, Princeton, and SUNY-Stony Brook through the Inter-University Doctoral Consortium (IUDC).More information can be found at the the IUDC page on the GSAS website (under Office of Student Services).CERTIFICATION OF LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY Before scheduling their orals, M.

students must demonstrate proficiency in a third language, by one of the means outlined for Certification of Proficiency in a Second Language in the M.Note: "Rapid Reading and Translation" courses (e.

Spanish 1113, Italian 1204, French 1206) sometimes offer final exams that are identicial to that department's language proficiency exam.

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If the department offers this kind of final in Rapid Reading courses, and notifies our Graduate Coordinator of the mark of Pass on the exam, the Rapid Reading final exam mark of Pass satisfies the ENCL language proficiency requirement.COMPLETING A DEGREE IN BOTH ENCL AND ICLS Student who are affiliated with the Institute for Comparative Literature and Society fulfill the M.requirements of their home departments (here English and Comparative Literature); in addition they take the ICLS gateway course G4900 and satisfy a third language certification Best websites to purchase college thesis proposal women's studies Premium American double spaced one hour.requirements of their home departments (here English and Comparative Literature); in addition they take the ICLS gateway course G4900 and satisfy a third language certification.

STRUCTURE OF THE ORALS The doctoral oral examination forms a bridge between the wide-ranging period of formal coursework and the highly focused work of the Ph.Orals preparation is the primary activity during the third year of the M.year), with the examination ordinarily taken toward the end of that academic year.The year's work should be a time of intellectual synthesis and definition, an opportunity both to explore new material and to deepen familiarity with material previously studied, through independent reading refined by regular conversations with the members of your examining committee.An orals examination is two hours long, divided among three fields.Collectively, these fields are intended to accomplish three things: to prepare you as a prospective teacher to master a field - defined pragmatically as an area in which jobs are commonly advertised - and to talk about it with a group of examiners; to give you a solid grasp of a distinct but related field beyond your primary field to serve as an exploratory device to help you develop and/or refine a dissertation topic.The exam takes the following form: Area 1 Based on a reading list of approximately 20-24 books, this field can provide a first chance to delve into the subject and principal texts of your dissertation topic, if you have a general sense of this topic.If you don't yet have a defined topic in mind, you can offer a cluster of authors whom you anticipate forming the center of your dissertation.If you aren't yet fairly sure about the likely issue or authors, then instead of a thesis field you should do a second "related field," which can center on another historical period, or on a set of theoretical or interdisciplinary readings, or you can build this field around a single author, examined in depth.

FORMULATING THE GENERAL FIELD The general field is intended to help set a broad context for dissertation work, and at the same time to prepare you for a job market in which most jobs are advertised in particular "fields," often historically defined, in which hiring committees typically expect candidates to have a broad general knowledge and an ability to teach introductory survey courses.These fields can be fairly arbitrary constructs, and no one's intellectual profile need be confined to a single field or a single definition of that field, but the general field gives you an opportunity to begin to work out your personal version of the field in which you'll most likely be applying for jobs.The common general field areas are: Area British Literature Old English (pre-1100), Middle English (1100-1485), Renaissance drama (1560-1640), Sixteenth-Century British (1485-1603), Seventeenth-Century British, Restoration and Eighteenth Century (1660-1799 or 1830), The Romantics and their contemporaries (1783-1830), Victorian (1830-1901), Modern British Literature (1890-1945), Transatlantic Modernism, Contemporary British or Anglophone Literature (1945-present) American Literature Early American (1492-1800), Nineteenth-Century American (1800-1900), Modern American (1865-1945), Contemporary American (1945-present), Literature of the Americas, African-American (beginnings to the present), American Studies Genre & Specialties History of the novel, Drama, Poetry, Colonial and Post-Colonial Literatures, Irish Studies, Film and media studies, Literary and Cultural Theory, Gender Studies, Women's Studies History of the novel, Drama, Poetry, Colonial and Post-Colonial Literatures, Irish Studies, Film and media studies, Literary and Cultural Theory, Gender Studies, Women's Studies Other general field areas can be arranged with approval of the DGS, but ordinarily the general field should be developed under one of the above rubrics.There are, of course, many ways to construct a reading list within one of these fields.The field can best be developed with a dual focus on works and issues.

Your list should have a good selection of key texts as well as whatever more individual or even idiosyncratic choices are most important to you personally, and you can usefully arrange your texts under half a dozen rubrics representing the issues of most current debate in the field today, weighting your selection of issues toward the ones that most attract you, but also including other major rubrics that you (and your examiners) feel are specially important.Your dissertation may well end up focusing entirely on the novel, or the drama, or lyric poetry, but hiring committees will expect you to have an active familiarity with a broad generic range within any given historical period.One thing to keep in mind in preparing orals lists is that the tremendous expansion of the literary canon in recent decades has not led to a pure leveling in which all authors have a comparable presence in a field.Every field tends to have a group of key authors who are constantly discussed - some of them traditional "major authors" and some new entrants into prominence - and hiring committees will likely expect you to have a good familiarity with most such authors in your field, even if your own dissertation focuses largely or entirely on less-discussed people.

Even newly emergent fields like postcolonial studies organize themselves in part around ongoing discussion of a cluster of central figures such as Rushdie and Coetzee, and it's a good idea for orals lists to take this fact into account.At the same time, your lists should reflect your personal inclinations and concerns, and will likely include a mix of much-discussed and less-discussed writers.ORALS TIMELINE Please note that all other requirements for the M.must be completed before orals may be taken.

Any exceptions require approval by the DGS.Year ORALS PROPOSAL The basis of orals work is the orals proposal, which should be developed during the spring of the second year (first M.year) and given in to the department for approval by the end of May.If necessary, final work can be done on the proposal over the summer, and it can be submitted in September of the third year.

1) 1-2 paragraphs laying out the overall logic of the three fields.Since this description comes at the beginning of study for the orals, it will inevitably be tentative, suggesting questions for exploration, advancing hypotheses rather than conclusions.At the same time, each field and its description should be sufficiently developed to justify the selection of primary texts.2) General Field•Selected secondary works 3) Related Field•Selected secondary works 4) Thesis Field, or, Second Related Field•Full list of primary works•Selected secondary works•Short rationale for the selections Orals lists will ordinarily include a mix of works you've never read and of familiar works you want to return to.Doing 80 brand-new works would be overwhelming, while repeating only familiar works misses the opportunity to extend your range during this year of work.

As a rule of thumb, perhaps half the works on your list should be ones you've already read, half new to you.

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In formulating proposals, students may consult samples available in the Department's files and at the link below for Sample Reading Lists.Submit two copies of your proposal with one copy of the cover sheet signed by the four examiners.SETTING UP THE COMMITTEE For some students, it may be perfectly obvious whom to ask to serve as examiners, but other students find it takes time and careful thought to work out the best committee No Salaried Positions in Women s Studies at Oxford University The nbsp.SETTING UP THE COMMITTEE For some students, it may be perfectly obvious whom to ask to serve as examiners, but other students find it takes time and careful thought to work out the best committee.

In the early stages of the development of the orals proposal, there is often a mutual interaction or biofeedback between evolving topics and the makeup of the committee.

Unless you're clear from the outset what you want to do and with whom you want to work, a good first step is to come and talk to the DGS in the winter of the second year; the DGS is an ideal person with whom to discuss tentative ideas and potential examiners.It's then appropriate to go to potential examiners and sound them out.For each potential examiner, it can be helpful to bring in a page listing a few key issues you're thinking about and some of the texts you expect to want to include.This initial conversation can be framed in exploratory terms, if you're not yet sure whether this is the topic (and the examiner) for you; it's quite common for students to contemplate a few topics and to speak to half a dozen potential examiners before settling into a final set of topics and examiners myol.info/research-proposal/where-to-buy-a-astronomy-research-proposal-rewriting-a4-british-european-single-spaced-100-plagiarism-free.This initial conversation can be framed in exploratory terms, if you're not yet sure whether this is the topic (and the examiner) for you; it's quite common for students to contemplate a few topics and to speak to half a dozen potential examiners before settling into a final set of topics and examiners.Ideally, at least a couple of your examiners will be people you think of as likely dissertation committee members (dissertations have three primary committee members).

The actual dissertation committee, however, need not be drawn purely from the orals committee.Ordinarily at least two of the four orals examiners should be tenured members of the department, but junior and senior faculty alike can be asked to serve on orals committees, as can adjunct faculty and faculty from other departments at Columbia.At times, a faculty member from outside Columbia is asked and agrees to serve, though the department doesn't have funds to compensate such service.Such arrangements are most often made when a student has been working with someone off-campus (often in courses taken through the Consortium); if you have a working relationship with such a person and want to ask, it's fine to do so, though you should be aware that this is a special favor and not press the matter if you sense any hesitation on the part of someone outside the university.

WORKING WITH FACULTY ON LEAVE Faculty who are on leave will ordinarily be ready to work with you regardless, and will be available to meet with you periodically, even if they aren't otherwise holding office hours.

The situation can be more complicated if the examiner will actually be out of town while on leave.If an examiner is away for one semester, it may be most effective to hold off primary work on that field until the examiner's return; on the other hand, especially if the examiner is away for a year, it is perfectly possible to be in steady contact via e-mail.As you first arrange your orals fields, you should ask your examiners if they'll be away during the period of your orals preparation, as well as during the likely time of the orals examination itself.Though leaves won't ordinarily interfere with the process (faculty who are away on leave often come back a couple of times specifically for orals and defenses), it's best to discuss the question directly, so that you and your prospective examiner can work out a mutually agreeable plan of work and of contact.If necessary, it can be better to find a different examiner than to go ahead with someone who won't be able to give you proper feedback, or whose absence would seriously delay the taking of the orals.

In such cases, it's clearly best to work this out up front, rather than become locked into an unproductive situation.In those rare cases when a desired examiner is unavailable, that person will certainly understand the logic of your getting the orals done with someone else, and once back from leave will still be available for dissertation work thereafter.Orals Discussion Groups Students studying for orals often find it helpful to create informal discussion groups with members of their cohort and field. These groups usually form when students are preparing orals proposals, and continue to meet once or twice a month until exams are completed to discuss readings. It is also helpful for students studying for orals to speak with those who have recently passed them; one way to facilitate this is to have orals groups invite fourth-year students to their first meetings of the fall semester.

Mandatory meeting with Examiners, and written work.Committee members must plan to meet with their students during the orals year. In the spring before the orals year, when the student is preparing his/her lists and rationales,x these plans for meeting and writing must bediscussed and confirmed by advisors and students.If a faculty member will be away that year, the plan for how to communicate should be established in advance.Major field advisors must meet with the student at least four times over the course of the third year (this can be divided between the two major field faculty).

 Each minor field advisor must meet with the student at least two times over the course of the third year. It is expected that for each of these meetings the student will produce written reports, as specified by the advisors. Before the final such meeting, the written report should have a more comprehensive character, specifics of which should be negotiated with the advisor.Reading by Yourself•organize your time so that you have a good chunk of prime work time every day for your orals preparation, and not allow teaching or other work to expand to fill your time.•be very selective about taking any further courses; one course a semester can provide a nice break from orals study, particularly if it relates directly to your orals work (perhaps in the form of the teacher as well as the syllabus); but you should resist the temptation to keep adding on courses for their own sake.

Your orals lists themselves are your primary coursework for the third year.

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•take notes! Ideally, a page or two for each work you read-your own reflections, a few key quotes, perhaps a listing of characters' names or of specific incidents you want to remember, a couple of important points raised by any secondary reading you've done that relates to the work in question.A binder with such notes is much easier to review at the year's end than your marginalia scattered through the thousands of pages of the books themselves.If you've studied a given work for a graduate class, you may be able to use existing notes and only review that work fairly rapidly 27 Jul 2016 - As a women's-studies graduate student at the British university, I could always count on my professors stocking a bottle or two of bubbly in their offices,   trips, or allotted funding for research materials, but the 15 women of Oxford's women's-studies program during the 2013–14 academic year made do with  .If you've studied a given work for a graduate class, you may be able to use existing notes and only review that work fairly rapidly.

The Theory behind the Exam While much of the work of the orals lies in the reading and the conversation that lead up to the examination, the orals examination itself is an important event.

It is an opportunity for the student to do several things: to demonstrate some mastery of her field and related areas; to give a sense of how she approaches the field; to articulate the primary animating questions and ideas she is considering as a beginning of her dissertation; to be an interloculator with the questioners and with the authors she has been reading; and to show that she is ready to enter into the final stage of the Ph.program, where she will be expected to undertake independent scholarship and to be come an active participant in the discipline title of the thesis Biblioth que et Archives Canada.program, where she will be expected to undertake independent scholarship and to be come an active participant in the discipline.Pass, Low Pass, or Fail There are three possible marks. Candidates receiving Pass who have fulfilled all other M myol.info/research-paper/get-a-mathematics-research-paper-senior-harvard-20-days-confidentiality.

 Candidates receiving Pass who have fulfilled all other M.

degree and proceed to the doctoral program.Candidates receiving Fail are not awarded the M.

and are not permitted to re-take the orals or advance to the doctoral program.Candidates receiving Low Pass are eligible to receive the M.Candidates receiving a Low Pass may petition their committees within three working days if they want to re-take the oral examination; if granted approval, candidates must re-take the exam within one month of the first oral examination.

A candidate who fails a second orals must petition the Committee on Graduate Education (CGE) for permission to make a third attempt.Adjusting the List before the Exam If there are a few works on your lists that you haven't managed to get to by the time the orals date approaches, it would be prudent to raise this with the relevant examiner(s); it can usually be agreed to leave such works to the side, unless your examiners feel that too much material hasn't yet been covered and the orals should be postponed.In either event, you should determine this in advance, rather than at the examination itself.You should have this in mind as you do your orals preparation: what possible topics and approaches are starting to open up? A fairly definite idea may crystallize during the period of orals preparation, but even if not, by the day of the orals you'll likely have some general ideas that you can test out, or an area and group of authors of interest.The conversation may also carry forward issues raised in your field discussions during the preceding two hours.

You should ideally emerge from this conversation with a sense of the next steps you need to take in refining your ideas.Process of the Exam The pre-oral written exam has been eliminated.The orals may be taken as early as Febraury 1 but no later than April 15 th of the third year.The orals examination ordinarily begins with the general field, then proceeds to the related field, and then to the thesis field, or second related field.

The examiners take the primary or even exclusive role in discussion of their field, but may also speak up during other fields than their own.

You should bring your orals lists with you but not plan on taking notes, as the focus should be directly on the conversation.At the conclusion of the two-hour examination, there will be a short recess while your examiners assess the exam.On your return to the room, following the likely result of a Pass, you will then have a twenty-minute preliminary conversation with your examiners about your proposed or possible dissertation.When you've had a formal "thesis field" with a primary examiner, this further conversation will give the other examiners a fuller chance to offer comments and suggestions; if you've offered two related fields rather than a thesis field, this conversation will give you an opportunity to set out some tentative ideas for the dissertation.Within four weeks of the successful oral exam, the student must produce a short (3-5) page pre-prospectus, in which s/he gives a preliminary view of the dissertation plan.

This assignment is not graded but will be read by all four oral committee members, who are expected to give prompt feedback so that the student can quickly proceed to work on the prospectus.Final version of the prospectus is due September 30 th of the fourth year.